Universelle Eigenschaften von füllstoffhaltigem Gummi
von H. G. Kilian, M. Strauss u. W. Hamm
Stress-strain cycles in filler loaded rubbers can be described with the aid of the van der Waals-network model. Reinforcement comes about by drawing pairs of filler particles apart. Reinforcement is observed because the intrinsic strain within the rubber bridge which is located between the filler particles exceeds the macroscopic strain very much, so much that interfacial slippage is enforced. The rubbery intra-cluster bridge distribution is represented by three dominant filler particle distances. One of them describes direct filler-to-filler (FF-) contacts, the critical strength of which is different from the filler-to-matrix (FM-) contacts of the filler-to-filler chains which are located on the whole surface of the filler particles. Formation of clusters is described by a power law. Stress-strain experiments are described with the aid of this model for different filler-matrix combinations (NR, SBR, carbon blacks, silica). Many universal features are observed: The intra-cluster rubber bridges display the same mean thickness when being related to the radius of the primary filler particles. The exponent in the power law is always identical. The deformation mechanisms, including irreversible slippage, do not to depend on the type of strain (simple extension, uniaxial compression). Yet, the Einstein-Smallwood effect turns out to be anisotrop so far as quasipermanent filler-to-matrix interactions seem to be determined by normal forces in the particles surfaces only. Different filler and matrix combinations display different strengths of the FF- and FM-contacts independent of the type of strain.