PU Magazine International

Issue 05 | 2017

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Report
336
Polyurethane Chemicals and Products in Asia Pacific (APAC) 2017 – New market study from IAL Consultants

IAL Consultants has published the study “Polyurethane Chemicals and Products in Asia Pacific (APAC) 2017”. The report contains both PU production and raw material consumption figures, with 2016 as the base year and market forecasts provided to 2021. This study updates the previous report published in 2015. IAL’s research is based upon an extensive programme of interviews throughout the Asian polyurethane industry.


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345
Ergo eco
Article
338
Flexible bio-based non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams

The amine cure of cyclic carbonate blends, derived from renewable resources and carbon dioxide, in the presence of a liquid fluorohydrocarbon as physical blowing agent with no ozone depletion potential, enables the facile tailoring of flexible bio-based non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams. Unlike conventional PU foams, neither isocyanates nor phosgene or aromatic amines are required as intermediates in NIPU foaming. Typically, rigid cyclic carbonates such as carbonated trimethylolpropane glycidylether (TMPGC) are blended together with the corresponding flexible cyclic carbonate such as ethoxylated TMPGC (EO-TMPGC) which lowers monomer viscosity and reactivity. This is reflected by higher pot life and gelation times for the cure with hexamethylenediamine (HDA), improving NIPU foam processing. With increasing EO-TMPGC content, rigid TMPGC/HDA-NIPU foams are rendered flexible and soft, as verified by simultaneously declining storage modulus and glass transition temperature. In this NIPU foam family, the TMPGC/EO-TMPGC (60 wt%/40 wt%) blend cured with HDA in the presence of Solkane 365/227 affords flexible NIPU foams exhibiting low density, very good mechanical hysteresis and tailored hardness, meeting the demands of various applications like automotive seating. Emission tests confirm the absence of critical compounds mentioned in the Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL).


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346
Caradol polyols addressing new VOC concerns in the polyurethane industry

Recently, there has been significant focus on stringent VOC (volatile organic compounds) requirements in passenger vehicles in China, which has put increased VOC restrictions on raw materials including polyols. The similar tightening of VOC requirements is expected to be followed by other countries globally including India. Currently, VOC standards are defined for foams and car interiors but not specifically defined for polyols. This paper will discuss how Shell is setting a benchmark by developing a VOC test method and specifications for its Caradol polyols to address these new VOC concerns. This paper describes how Shell has been aligning its manufacturing processes and raw materials/additives to continuously reduce VOC levels in polyols meeting most of the current global VOC requirements including new China specifications. In this paper, we also compare the processing performance and product properties, especially VOC performance, of foams made using Shell low VOC polyols.


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349
Fast injection bonding for wood and other applications

An ultrafast 2K polyurea adhesive developed by nolax enables the industrial bonding of components made from different materials. The adhesive cures within seconds in the cavity and ensures further processability. High tensile strength, adjustable elongation at break and very good resistance to various influences can be achieved with the 2K polyurea adhesive.


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352
The impact of amine catalyst in hydrohaloolefin blown rigid polyurethane foam systems

In recent years, hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) have been proposed and attracting attention as sustainable blowing agents for rigid PU foam with very low global warming potential (GWP) as a viable alternative to current blowing agents, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with higher GWP. However, as HFOs have become industrially available, it has emerged that the blowing agent has less chemical stability, specifically when it coexists with the conventional tertiary amine catalysts. Consequently, the reactivity of the resin package and final foam properties will diminish after long-term storage. Because amines with a larger catalytic activity tend to decompose HFO more rapidly, improvement of both stability and front-end reactivity of premixed resin package has been the significant challenge in the development of catalyst system for HFO blown system. Based on a novel catalyst design, Tosoh has investigated the function of amines and stabilizers on the shelf-life of PU foam systems containing HFOs. This study has led to the development of a new amine catalyst which provides faster initial reaction and extended shelf-life of HCFO-1233zd(E) blown PU foam formulation.


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358
Dynamic comfort and vibration damping with polyurethane foams

Polyurethane foam is one of the leading vibration damping materials used in automotive applications. The comfort of the seats is one of the major factors of car performance that helps the consumers differentiate between vehicles within a similar class. Additionally, seat comfort is vital to ensure passenger safety by providing adequate postural support. Sound absorbing and insulating foams also optimize noise comfort and isolate sources of noise, for example, the engine and the road. The flexibility of polyurethane chemistry enables a wide variety of foam cell microstructures and polymer viscoelastic properties in polyurethane foams. These structures and properties can be tuned to aid energy dissipation of sound waves from sources of noise and dampen vibrations from the road while driving. However, most foam properties specified by the design engineers are based on static tests, although while driving a car the behavior is rather dynamic. Therefore, the dynamic properties of foams are of greater importance to comfort. Vibration frequencies, extent of deformation, time and temperature will all influence this behavior. This paper will show how using advanced characterization methods, such as X-ray computed tomography and dynamic mechanical analyses coupled with advanced computational techniques, such as computational fluid and structural mechanics, can aid the development of the next generation of flexible foams for automotive applications.


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366
Studies on the influence of process-related parameters on the impregnation quality of novel sandwich structures

The apparent potential of lightweight structures in many applications leads to an increasing demand for efficient processing technologies and design principles. In this context, sandwich structures with top layers made of fibre-reinforced plastics exhibit a considerably high potential due to their inherent material efficiency. However, in most cases, uncompetitive process efficiencies and high costs remain the major drawbacks for the widespread use of these lightweight materials. Scientist of the Institute of Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology (ILK) of the TU Dresden developed a single-step processing technology for the manufacture of novel sandwich structures using a polyurethane spray coat method. Here, the expansion pressure of the foamable polyurethane matrix is used to impregnate textile structures to simultaneously create the top layers and the foam core of the sandwich part. Comprehensive processing studies reveal the influence of mould temperature, foam density and dwelling time on the resulting impregnation quality and the composite morphology.


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371
Innovative TPU for industrial and specialty wires and cables

In this article, a series of the most important properties of TPU materials for the wire and cable industry will be explored. Using international standards (ASTM), these will also be compared to those of a standard market product. ASTM and Wanhua’s own methods were used in the testing described, which took place in Wanhua’s CNAS-­certified lab environment. 


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374
Additives and technical solutions for footwear applications

Microcellular polyurethane (PU) elastomers are widely used materials in particular for shoe sole production. A common goal of shoe-soling formulators and manufacturers is density reduction while maintaining dimensional stability and integral skin quality. The shoe sole design complexity is also creating challenges for foam flow and curing. This paper describes the use of recently developed additives that are able to produce lower density, pinholes-free cell structure and internal cell-opening effect while providing defect-free skin soles. Momentive Performance Materials Inc. has developed a series of new silicone surfactants for polyether as well as polyester based footwear application to enable for optimum cell regulation and cell opening with the added benefit of improved foam dimensional stability and smooth foam skins. In addition, this paper shows the use of specialized catalysts that allow extended pour time and improved foam flow with improved shorter demold time and good physical properties.


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379
Numerical simulation and ­material characterization of the polyurethane foaming process

We present the recent development of three-dimensional water blown polyurethane foam injection molding. Front tracking experiment is employed to investigate the foaming kinetics of polyurethane. Reaction kinetics model, density model and viscosity model are applied to describe the complex polyurethane foam system in the simulation study. In this work, the melt front time and the part density are predicted. It will be helpful to understand the mold filling behavior in the foam polyurethane.


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